- Brajakumar, Ph.D (email@example.com)
Few freshwater fish spend their entire life in wetlands, and wetlands that seldom contain surface water do not usually have fish. Although fish community structure has been widely described in lakes and rivers, and indices of ecological integrity which integrate community data have been developed and tested, such efforts have not yet been transferred to wetlands. In Manipur, there are 167 (≥ 2.25 Ha) and 541 wetlands (<2.25 Ha)wetlands covering about 63,616 ha i.e. 2.85% of total geographic area under different types of wetlands like lake / pond (61.5%), river/steam (26.2%), waterlogged (5.5%) and aquaculture pond, ( National Wetland Atlas 2010). However, the production of fish from the natural water areas such as lakes, wetlands and rivers is decreasing day by day in the state of Manipur due to various factors like silting of the lake, infestation with aquatic weeds, conversion of natural lake into agricultural lands, reduction in fish breeding grounds, over exploitation, etc. Some other factors like lack of technical know-how, non- availability of quality fish seed, feed and fish feed ingredients (such as rice bran, oilcake, etc.) at reasonable rates in the market, agro - climatic factors, acidity in soil, etc. are also contributing in lowering the production rate.
As per the Standard Nutritional Requirement of 11 kg per capita consumption of fish, the annual requirement of table fish for about 27.21 lakh population (Census 2011) of the state was estimated at 29,931 MT against the present production of 22,200 MT by 2012. Many trained private fish farmers produced quality fish seeds independently through adoption of induced breeding techniques of Indian major carp fishes like Catla, Rohu, Mrigal, Grass carp, Common carp, Silver carps, etc. and even export their surplus fish seeds to the neighbouring states like Nagaland, Mizoram, etc. The production rate of fish has increased from below 200 kgs to above 2500 kgs per hectare per annum as reported by the Fishery Dept., Manipur. The average rate of fish production in cultured ponds in the state is only to the tune of 1500 kg / ha / annum whereas the national average is 2100 kg/ha./annum. read more>>