ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Saturday, August 24, 2019

Air

Air pollution in our state is both natural and human based. Manipur is least industrialized. A few small and village industries are struggling for survival. There is hardly, perhaps, any major threat of industrial pollution in the state. The main source of air pollution has been identified as auto exhaust emissions of the fast growing number of automobiles, dust-fall due to bad road management and other miscellaneous commercial earthmoving activities. The slash and burning of fresh forest during February- March every year for preparation of the field for agricultural crop under Jhum practices adds huge amount of fumes and particulates into the atmosphere.There is an increasing trend in vehicle number in Manipur. Two wheelers are by far dominant type in Manipur. Most of the vehicular population is found in urban areas. The number of two- wheelers registered as on 31-3-2013 is 67.88 % of the total population and personalised vehicles as on 31.3.2013 is 84.26% of the total population.  It is estimated that about 8000 – 9000 vehicles per year are increasing & therefore by 2030, the vehicular population of the State would be around 4- 5 lakhs. The level of growth in private modes of transport in comparison with public transport is a significant contributory factor for urban air pollution. Although two wheelers are generally more fuel efficient than passenger cars they typically emit more pollutants per kilometer thereby contributing more to the particulate carbon monoxide, Sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxide emissions.

 

Vehicular emission :

 

There is sudden increase in the number of vehicles in the town area during the last one decade producing a lot of smoke. The use of a large number of second-hand vehicles as transport is another cause of concern. In addition to this, the ambient air is further polluted by the dust from the poorly maintained road and smoke emitted from the burning solid-waste here and there.

 

Table : Record on vehicular population in Manipur (2001-2010)

Categories

of vehicles

2001

2002

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Truck

6,203

6,422

6,113

7,804

8,586

9,063

9,436

9,800

10,301

Buses

1,562

1,641

1,643

1,827

1,913

1,969

2,062

2,085

2,069

Mini Bus

595

601

506

653

657

665

665

666

663

Jeep

6,746

7,132

7,009

8,269

8,568

8,967

9,146

10,193

11,471

Car

5,848

6,574

7,400

9,632

12,034

12,439

13,327

15,649

16,464

Taxi

323

356

423

369

377

407

412

526

1,536

Tempos

37

37

38

38

38

2,263

146

173

181

Tractors

946

1,047

858

1,348

1,446

1,460

1,540

1,586

2,973

Auto Rickshaws

2,315

2,352

2,344

2,592

2,697

76,219

4,096

4,297

7,193

2 Wheelers

58,328

63,189

68,771

80,557

86,931

93,595

105,465

107,919

139,200

Trailers

507

532

542

581

612

626

664

674

631

Others

190

208

213

251

270

423

435

635

767

Total

83,600

90,091

95,860

113,921

124,129

208,066

147,394

154,203

193,449

 

 

Table: Vehicular population at Districts of Manipur (as on 31.03.2013)

Categories

of vehicles

Imphal West

Imphal East

Thoubal

Bishnupur

Chandel

Senapati

Ukhrul

Chura

chandpur

Total

Truck

7866

677

849

1138

578

367

164

891

12530

Bus

1646

194

179

198

174

114

-

172

2677

M/Bus

542

1

147

160

115

1

-

138

1104

Jeep

10223

  660

1170

281

369

234

219

287

13443

Car

18375

2115

334

380

252

407

247

852

22962

Taxi

1975

323

9

49

 

18

15

88

2477

Tractor

962

587

594

18

 

8

2

127

2298

Auto

rickshaw

7754

1831

956

402

274

425

45

928

12615

2 wheelers

114977

12791

12801

1461

175

905

353

7391

150854

Trailers

395

2

66

-

-

-

-

56

519

Others

405

24

251

-

-

-

2

73

755

Total

165120

19205

17356

4087

1937

2478

1048

11003

222234

 - Not Available

Source : Directorate of Transport, Govt. Of Manipur

 

 

Ambient Air Quality Status of Manipur

The air quality in all the Valley Districts of Manipur is within the permissible limits. There are no major highly air polluting Industries in the area. The use of boilers and the existing brick kilns of seasonal operation produce emission of local influence only. The air quality in the Valley is not considered bad. However, there is urgent need for putting a check on the rising and indiscriminate establishment of small industrial units within thickly populated areas and also a check on the rising trend of use of second-hand vehicles in the state.

 

 Table1:Ambient Air Quality in the Valley Districts(1997) 

Sl. No.

Location

SO(µg/m3)

NO(µg/m3)

SPM (µg/m3)

1.

Nilakuthi

10.00

2.04

100

2.

Koirengei

13.30

7.08

128

3.

Nagamapal

18.80

5.06

138

4.

Keisamthong

18.90

5.01

128

5.

Langjing

10.80

3.10

100

6.

MU

18.70

3.20

100

7.

Manipur College

18.60

3.10

128

8.

Lamsang

10.50

3.00

100

9.

Kwakeithel

18.70

5.03

158

10.

Lamlong

10.30

6.08

180

11.

Pangei

10.40

3.08

150

12.

Thoubal

10.50

2.00

110

13.

Yairipok

10.60

3.08

120

14.

Bishnupur

10.70

2.00

110

15.

Kakching

28.00

6.61

160

16.

Sugunu

20.47

6.83

145

17.

Kumbi

28.75

6.83

150

18.

Singda

25.70

5.70

100

19.

Andro

20.00

5.21

100

20.

Mayang Imphal

23.02

5.66

151

21.

Sawombung

28.75

6.50

145

22.

Jiribam

30.80

8.02

200

Source: Manipur Pollution Control Board

 

 

Table 2: Ambient Air Quality Report (August 2005)

Parameter

Unit

CM’s Gate, Civil Secretariat Road, Imphal City

Standard as per MoEF, Gol*

Sample-1

Sample-2

Sample-3

Sample-4

Suspended particulate(SPM)

m gm/m3

741.72

872.39

769.44

813.92

200

Respirable Particulate Matter(RPM)

m gm/m3

125.31

221.35

161.11

216.55

100