ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Wednesday, August 10, 2022

Agriculture

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Manipur. Agriculture sector contributes a major share to the total state domestic product and provides employment to about 22.13 percent (according to 2011 census) of the total workers in Manipur. Out of the total geographical area of the state, only 7.41 percent is used for cultivation. Of this total cultivated area, 52% is confined to the valley. Therefore, half of the total valley area, which accommodates 67% of the total population, is occupied for agriculture purposes. Thus, the pressure on land in the valley is quite conspicuous.

 

The agriculture practices in the state can be broadly categorized into two distinct types, viz., settled farming practiced in the plains, valleys, foothills, terraced slopes, etc. and shifting cultivation(Jhum) practiced on the hill slopes. The shifting cultivation leads to possible forest degradation in the foot hills and reduc the total sink potential across the state.

 

There are 18 (eighteen) main crops which are cultivated during the two seasons in the state. Rice cultivation dominates all others crops. With the increase of the population, the requirement or demand of all crops has been increased tremendously. However the production of the crops has been decreased. Therefore there has been the great requirement of adaptation of the high yielding varieties of seed over the traditional seeds. The adoption of high-yielding varieties (HYV) of different crops except paddy has been very slow in Manipur, especially in the hill districts.

 

Some of the commercial crops grown in Manipur are cotton, kabrangchak, oilseeds and sugarcane which is very essential for enhacing the growth of agro-based industries in the state of Manipur.

 

Common horticulture crops grown in the State are Kharif vegetables (French bean, Cucurbits, Tomatoes, Brinjal, Bhindi, Colocecia, Alocacia), Rabi vegetables (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Potato, Pea, Broad bean, Radish, Carrot, Broccoli, lettuce, Capsicum), Spices (Onion, Garlic, Chilli, Ginger, Turmeric, Hatkora) Fruits and Plantation Crops (Litchi, Cashew nuts, Wall nuts, Orange, Lemon, Banana, Pineapple, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Plum). The state has the scope and potential to grow various horticulral crops because of varied agro- climatic condition.

 

The main categories of livestock reared in Manipur are cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, etc. Cattles and buffaloes provide motive power in wet cultivation.Rearing of pigs and poultry farming are found to be very important sources of income generating activities. The farmers in the state perform livestock rearing with a view of sustainable development & self sufficiency in livestock products. But there is still a huge gap between demand and supply of these livestock products in the state.

 

Due to the irregularity and erratic behaviour of monsoon accompanied by inadequate irrigation facilities have resulted in severe fluctuations in agricultural production. Agriculture plays a very crucial role in the state’s economy.

 

Pattern of Land Utilisation :

 

Due to un cadastrally surveyed of Hill areas, the Land  Utilisation statistics for the entire State of Manipur are not available. The plains of Manipur occupies about 2,238 sq. kms. which accounts for about 10 percent of the total geographical area. As per the land utilization statistics of 2010-11, out of the total geographical area, the reporting land available for agriculture is about 231.19 sq. km.The total crop area of Manipur during 2012-13 are 239.43 hectares. The land use classification (Total crop Area) of Manipur for the year 2011-12 to 2012-13 are presented below:

 

Table: Land use Classification (Total Crop Area) of Manipur, 2011-12 to 2012-13

Area in ‘000 hectares

 

 

District

Classification of reported area

2011-12

2012-13

Net area sown

Area sown more than once

Total Crop Area

Net area sown

Area sown more than once

Total Crop Area

Senapati

17.48

6.79

23.86

10.91

8.12

19.03

Tamenglong

30.85

6.91

37.76

17.65

8.58

26.23

Churachandpur

36.36

6.96

43.32

21.63

8.24

29.87

Chandel

14.86

6.15

21.01

10.65

7.47

18.12

Ukhrul

13.51

7.82

21.33

10.67

9.11

19.78

Imphal East

35.72

9.61

45.33

17.14

10.11

27.25

Imphal West

32.54

16.99

49.53

19.21

15.37

34.58

Bishnupur

26.28

19.79

46.07

13.54

18.03

31.57

Thoubal

26.27

19.85

46.12

14.88

18.12

33.00

 

Source: Department of Agriculture, Manipur

 

Agricultural Production :

Permanent cultivation is generally practised in the valley districts, while terrace cultivation is practised in some of the hills where jhuming or shifting cultivation is widely adopted in most of the hill districts. Rice is the staple food of Manipur and is grown in both the hill and plain areas. Cultivation is almost entirely mono-crop with rice accounting about 98 percent of food-grains production and about 72 percent of the total cropped area is grown with paddy.  The following table presents the districtwise area, production and average yield of cereal crops in Manipur during 2014-15:

 

Table: Districtwise Area, Production and Average yield of cereal crops in Manipur, during 2014-15

 

Area:’000 hectares

 

Yield rate: kg./hectares

Production:’000 tonnes

 

 

District

Rice

Maize

Area

Yeild rate

Production

Area

Yeild rate

Production

Senapati

12.10

1.60

19.42

4.75

2.19

10.41

Tamenglong

27.45

1.53

41.97

2.75

2.27

6.25

Churachandpur

29.12

1.61

46.88

6.22

2.27 14.13

Chandel

10.03

1.60 16.02

3.70

2.20 8.14

Ukhrul

10.12

1.64

16.55

2.57

2.22 5.71

Imphal East

36.04 2.42 87.10

1.23

2.33 2.87

Imphal West

38.98

2.27

2.77

1.26

2.33 2.94

Bishnupur

29.86

2.76

82.35

1.61

2.30 3.70

Thoubal

30.68

2.77

85.00

2.10

2.19 4.60

Manipur

224.38

2.23

501.16

26.19

2.24 58.75

 

Source: Department of Agriculture, Manipur

 

Usage of Fertilizer and Pesticide :

 

Chemical fertilizers play an important role in increasing the agricultural production particularly when used with the high yielding varieties which are responsive to recommended doses of fertilizers. The increase in agricultural production was possible as a result of adoption of quality seeds, appropriate doses of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals, coupled with assured irrigation. The improved and certified seeds have been the catalyst for making inputs cost effective. The fertilizer consumption was 59.05 thousand tonnes in 2003- 04 and it decreased to 17.12 thousand tonnes in 2011-12 and 23.40 thousand tonnes in 2012-13. The trend in the consumption of fertilizers and pesticides can be seen from the following Tables:

 

Table: Consumption of Fertilizers in Manipur during 2002-03 to 2012-13

                                                                                                                                (in ‘000 tonnes)

 

Year

Fertilizers

Total

Urea

DAP

MOP

M. Phos

S.S.P

2002-03

45.68

5.00

2.86 

-

3.16

56.70

2003-04

47.25

5.37

2.32

3.42

0.69

59.05

2004-05 

34.53

4.19

1.59

-

2.93

44.14

2005-06 

25.35

2.43

1.21

-

1.60

30.59

2006-07 

28.27

6.50

2.18

-

3.75

40.70

2007-08

28.76

6.24

2.17

0.03

3.01

40.21

2008-09

19.14

3.52

2.46

-

2.07

27.19

2009-10

22.56

1.67

0.61

0.06

1.29

26.19

2010-11

10.28

2.01

0.05

0.02

1.07

13.88

2011-12

13.64

1.79

0.73

-

0.97

17.12

2012-13

18.84

2.25

0.81

-

1.50

23.40

 

-  Not available

Source : Agriculture Department, Govt. of Manipur

 

Table: List of the pesticide consumption in Manipur are given below:

Year

Pesticide Type

Consumption (M.t/a)

2012

Insecticides

26.2

2011

Insecticides

26.3

2010

Insecticides

26.0

2009

Insecticides

27.1

2008

Insecticides

27.0

2007

Insecticides

26.9

2006

Insecticides

27.1

2005

Insecticides

25.6

2004

Insecticides

26.0

2003

Insecticides

27.9

2002

Insecticides

28.0

2001

Insecticides

28.5

2000

Weedicides

29.1

2000

Insecticides

29.1

Sub Total

 

58.0

Grand Total

 

380

 

Source: Directorate of Agriculture Govt. of Manipur

 

Fishery Resources in Manipur:

Fish is the most important item and easily digestible protein food of the Manipuri. It is the only source of animal protein acceptable to all the people of the state..The State has vast potential of fisheries resources such as ponds, tanks, natural lakes, marshy areas, swampy areas, rivers, submerged cropped land, low lying paddy fields etc. The largest source of fish is the Loktak Lake.The swamp areas can be profitably utilized for culture of various indigenous natural fishes like Ukabi(Anabas tesdudineus), Ngamu(Lata fish), Ngaton(Labeo bata),Ngakrijou(Lepidodephalichthys SPP), Sareng Khoibi(Botia SPP), Nganap (Pengia SPP), Ngatin (Labeo Pangusia), Ngakra (Barbus tor), Ngasang (Esomus denricus), Phabounga (Puntius SPP), Ngamhai (Chanda SPP), Pengba (Osteobrama belangeri) etc. Event though many trained fish farmers are producing large nos. of fishes, the State still requires large nos. of fishes. So, a large quantities of fishes are being imported from outside the state every year to fill the gaps.

 

Effect on agriculture due to climate change:

Agricultural production is highly sensitive to climate change and weather variability. Extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, heavy precipitation events, heat and cold waves significant negative impacts on agricultural production and livelihood of the farmers as agriculture forms the backbone of state economy.The main source of water for agriculture is rain water. The productivity of agriculture are largely dependent in the rainfall because the irrigation system in Manipur is not fully developed.